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Sample Asterisk Firewall Rules


Trixbox 1.2.3. wtih InPhonex Trunk


Device Configuration Guides
Trixbox v with InPhonex Trunk

The purpose of this document is to provide a step by step installation guide of Trixbox using InPhonex as the VoIP provider.

We have only included the information we considered necessary to perform a basic installation. You can always visit in order to learn about all the features provided as well as additional information you may need.

Just follow this installation guide step by step and you will be able to install and configure your Trixbox with our InPhonex service in no time!



Asterisk Trixbox with InPhonex Trunk

click to enlarge


Table of Contents

What is Asterisk?
What is Trixbox?

1 Pre-Installation Tasks
1.1 Meet the minimum or recommended hardware requirements
1.2 Download the ISO image
1.3 Set up your router/firewall so Trixbox can communicate with InPhonex via SIP through NAT
1.4 Setup for changing Public Dynamic Internet IP address

2 Installation
2.1 Installing from an ISO

3 Securing your Trixbox server
3.1 Configure your Trixbox server with a static IP address
3.2 Changing your default FOP password
3.3 Changing your default meetme password
3.4 Changing your default System Mail password
3.5 Changing your default Sugar CRM Password
3.6 Updating patches to CentOS

4 Using PBX to configure your Trixbox server
4.1 What is PBX?
4.2 Configuring an extension
4.3 Configuring trunk for inbound and outbound calls
4.4 Configuring Outbound Routing
4.5 Configuring Inbound Routes
4.6 System Recordings
4.7 IVR (Digital Receptionist)

5 Other Tasks
5.1 Install low bandwidth codecs
5.2 Restrict the InPhonex trunk to the above mentioned codecs.
5.3 Restrict Asterisk to use low bandwidth codecs for  remote extensions.

6 Routing and managing multiple DIDs
7 Troubleshooting



Who can use Trixbox?

Trixbox can be configured in different ways according to your needs.
Trixbox can be used by:

  1. Offices
  2. Call centers
  3. Cyber Cafes
  4. Call shops
  5. Home use

What is Asterisk?

Asterisk is an open source PBX that allows regular and sip phones to communicate with each other.
Each phone is configured as an extension in the PBX but the greatest advantage of Asterisk is that the extension does not have to be in the same physical location. This means that you can have extensions all over the world as long as they are connected to the internet and properly configured with your server’s information.

Like any PBX system, Asterisk has features such as: Voicemail, conferencing, call distribution.
One of the greatest advantages of Asterisk is that it will let you customize its dial plan and code according to your needs.

What is Trixbox?

Trixbox is an iso image of a pre-configured Asterisk server which makes installation and deployment easier. Trixbox contains a full version of Asterisk and other pre-configured applications considered add-ons.

After installing Trixbox, you will have a fully functional PBX which can be customized according to your needs.


1 Pre-Installation Tasks

1.1 Meet the minimum or recommended hardware requirements

The faster the system you use to run Asterisk, the more simultaneous calls it will be able to handle. A 500MHz PIII with 128 Megs of RAM should easily meet the needs of the average home use. 2Gb Hard Disk minimum.

Keep in mind that these are the minimum requirements. If you are planning to use Asterisk in an office environment where voicemail and call monitoring will be used, we would suggest you use a PIV CPU, at least 512 MB of RAM and at least a 40 GB hard drive.


1.2 Download the ISO image

If you have not already done so, download the .ISO file, version, from the following link and burn it to a CD.

Please be aware that this guide is only for version and could change if you have a more updated version of Trixbox. For the most current up to date version of Trixbox visit:

NOTE: Most burning utilities can burn ISO images in to a CD.
One program you can use for this Alcohol 120% located at:


1.3 Set up your router/firewall so Trixbox can communicate with InPhonex via SIP through NAT

For Trixbox to communicate successfully with InPhonex using SIP through a NAT, you have to make sure your router/firewall forwards the following ports to your LAN/Private IP address assigned to the Trixbox server. Be sure the LAN/Private address is statically assigned to the Trixbox server and it is not assigned dynamically via DHCP.

In your firewall’s configuration forward the following ports to your Trixbox’s IP address:





















10000 – 20000


Note:  We do not support IAX or IAX2. We included them in the table as a reference.


1.4 Setup for changing Public Dynamic Internet IP address

Most ISPs do not provide a “public static IP address” which would be recommended to run Trixbox. The average ISP provides Dynamic (DHCP) addresses which makes it a little more difficult for users to run Trixbox. The work around for this problem is “Dynamic DNS”.


What is dynamic DNS?

Dynamic DNS allows an internet domain name to be assigned to a public dynamic IP address.
This is a solution that can be used for Trixbox servers connected to high speed modem where the IP address is changed periodically or upon power cycling of the modem.

Some dynamic DNS providers provide a piece of software that can be installed in the server. This software works in the background and it tracks any change in the IP address and sends it to their database. This way the domain name will always be updated with the correct IP address as soon as it changes.

There are some routers in the market that have this feature built in which makes it unnecessary to install any software in the server. All you have to do is get an account with the provider and configure it in the router.


How do I use Dynamic DNS with Trixbox?

You need to edit the sip_nat.conf file. From the PBX menu, click Config File Editor. From the list of conf files, click on sip_nat.conf. Inside of sip_nat.conf add the following and click "Update":

  • externip = (Enter your DynamicDNS domain name. Obviously it's just easier to get a static IP address and avoid using DynamicDNS altogether.)

  • localnet = (put your LAN/Private NETWORK address of your Trixbox server, this is NOT the IP address of the server!!!!)

To determine your local NETWORK address (NOT the IP address!!) you have to know a little about your subnet mask ( numbers).

  • If the IP address of the Trixbox server is, then the NETWORK address is
  • If the IP address of the Trixbox server is, then the NETWORK address is
  • If the IP address of the Trixbox server is, then the NETWORK address is

If you are using NAT or a private IP enter the following:

  • nat=yes

The sip_nat.conf file should look like this:

externip = <public IP address>

localnet = <Enter your internal network address>



2 Installation

2.1 Installing from an ISO

Insert the CD you created using the ISO image and make sure that your Bios is configured to boot from a CD-ROM or DVD-ROM.

Boot the computer and press ENTER when prompted. This will erase all the information on the hard drive and install your Trixbox.

Once your Trixbox server is installed, it will have all the applications and the operating system itself with default passwords; That is why it is recommended that you unplug your server from the network in order to avoid any hacker attack.

After Linux has loaded, the CD will eject. Remove the CD from the system and wait for the system to reboot. Booting the system might take a while, depending on the speed of your computer. Once this process is complete, log in to your new Trixbox system with root as the user name, and the password you created during the installation.


3 Securing your Trixbox server

3.1 Configure your Trixbox server with a static IP address

In order to change the default passwords, we need to assign your Trixbox a static IP address.

At the CentOS command line type:


A semi-graphical screen appears that can be explored by using the "tab" button. Enter all the requested information and tab to OK once you're done. After returning to the CentOS command prompt, type:


To reboot the server.


3.2 Changing your default FOP password

The default password for the Flash Operator Panel is:

Password: passw0rd

Note that 0 is a “zero”

To change this password, log in to your CentOP server using your user and password and enter the FOP directory

cd /var/www/html/panel

Using nano as the editor, open the configuration file op_server.cfg

nano op_server.cfg

Go to the line that says security code=passw0rd. Replace the “passw0rd” with the password of your choice.


Then do a CTRL-X to exit and then a "Y" to save changes. Now restart the FOP server.

amportal restart         


3.3 Changing your default meetme password

To change the default type the following into the CentOS command prompt:


It will ask you for your new password twice.


3.4 Changing your default System Mail password

To change the default password type the following into the CentOS command prompt:

passwd admin

It will ask you for your new password twice.


3.5 Changing your default Sugar CRM Password

Access SugarCRM from your web page by typing HTTP://YourAsteriskIPaddressHere into your web browser.

The default login and password are:

Login: admin
Password: password

To change this, click on My Account in the upper right corner, and then click the Change Password button to change your CRM password.


3.6 Updating patches to CentOS

It is recommended that you install CentOP patches. From the CentOS command line, run the following command:

yum -y update


4 Using PBX to configure your Trixbox server

4.1 What is PBX?

Asterisk Management Portal makes Asterisk configuration easier by providing a graphical method (through a web browser). PBX allow you con configure the textual configuration files that Asterisk needs to function.

PBX can configure the following  in asterisk:

Incoming Calls — Specify where to send calls coming from the outside
Extensions — Add extensions and set voicemail properties
Ring Groups — Group extensions that should ring simultaneously
Queues — Place calls into queues and allow them to be answered in order
Digital Receptionist — Create voice menus to greet callers
Trunks — Set up trunks to connect to the outside world
Outbound Routing — Manage which trunks outbound calls go out
DID Routes — Specify the destination for calls if their trunk supports direct inward dial
On Hold Music — Upload MP3 files to be played while users are on hold
System Recordings — Record or upload messages for specific extensions
Backup and Restore — Create, back up, and restore profiles of your system
General Settings — Set basic dialing, company directory, and fax settings    

For InPhonex configuration purposes we will need to enable some of the modules in FreePBX
Please follow these steps:

  1. Open your web browser and type HTTP://YourAsteriskIPaddressHere
  2. Switch to Admin Mode. (click on the switch link in the upper right corner)
  3. Click on the PBX Menu
  4. Select PBX Settings
  5. Click on Tools
  6. Click on Module Admin
  7. Enable the following is not already enabled
    • Core
    • Voicemail
    • IVR
    • Ring Groups
    • Recordings
    • Call Forward
    • Call Waiting
    • Do-Not-Disturb
    • Info Service

4.2 Configuring an extension

  1. Open your web browser and type HTTP://YourAsteriskIPaddressHere
  2. If you are not currently already in Admin mode, Switch to Admin Mode. (click on the "switch" link in the upper right corner)
  3. Click on the PBX menu and select PBX Settings.
  4. In the PBX menu click Setup and then click Extensions.

Trixbox v2.6.1.1 Configuration

5. From the device drop down menu select “Generic SIP device” and click submit.


Example setup for an extension 200.

  1. Under the Add Extension section, type in your first extension in the User Extension box. Then enter the name of the person using this extension in the Display Name box.

    Trixbox v2.6.1.1 Configuration

  2. Under the Device Options box, type the password for registration into the secret box. The dtmfmode box should not be changed unless you have issue later with calls requiring different DTMF.

    Trixbox v2.6.1.1 Configuration

  3. Under the Voicemail & Directory section, change the Status to Enabled.

  4. Under Voicemail Password, enter a password for this voicemail box.
    Please Note: Use something you can type on a phone keypad like '1234'.

  5. Under the Email Address box, Enter an e-mail address where you would like your voice messages sent and click add extension.

    Trixbox v2.6.1.1 Configuration

    Every time you make a configuration change and click “Submit” an ORANGE button will appear at the top of the screen “Apply Configuration Changes”. This button will reload the . conf files.

    Click this bar in order for the changes to take effect. Trixbox v2.6.1.1 Configuration


  1. Configure your extension in a soft phone for testing. Xlite is the best choice for this test. Remember to use your extension number and password in Xlite. Use your Trixbox  private IP address as the sip proxy.

  2. Make a call from your phone. Try *43. This is an echo test.

NOTE: If the extension you are configuring will connect remotely (outside the Local Area Network) you will need to change the NAT option to yes.

Just create the extension, submit the changes and go back to edit it. You will see NAT=never; change it to NAT=yes


4.3 Configuring trunk for inbound and outbound calls

  1. Connect to your Trixbox using a PC in your network by typing HTTP://YourAsteriskIpaddress   in your web browser.
  2. Select PBX Settings from the PBX menu
  3. Click Trunks then “Add SIP Trunk”.
  4. Only enter the following information:

    Outgoing Settings
    Trunk Name = ainphonex

    PEER Details

    NOTE: Replace the X's with your 7 digit virtual number. Replace the Y's with your inphonex virtual number password.
    NOTE: careinvite=no is the correct setting, do not edit this to be canreinvite.

    Trixbox v2.6.1.1 Configuration

    Incoming Settings
    User Context = inphonex

    USER Details

    Trixbox v2.6.1.1 Configuration


    Register String:

    NOTE: InPhonex will send all calls to your server through the VN and not the DID, it is very important that you have the VN at the very end of this string and not your actual incoming DID number.

    Trixbox v2.6.1.1 Configuration

  5. Click “Apply Configuration Changes” at the top of the screen to apply your new changes.
    Trixbox v2.6.1.1 Configuration

4.4 Configuring Outbound Routing

You will need to allow calls from your phones to go out on a specific trunk. When having more than one trunk, you will need to setup dialing rules (dialing patterns) in order to specify which calls should go out on which trunk.

Still using the PBX Menu:

  1. Click on Outbound Routes.
  2. Assign a name for your route.
  3. Enter the following Information into the Dial Patterns box:


    Trixbox v2.6.1.1 Configuration

    Trunk Sequence
    Select  SIP/Inphonex from the pull down menu.

    Trixbox v2.6.1.1 Configuration


You may have multiple companies or departments that do outbound calling and/or have direct inbound numbers for returning phone calls. For this reason, you want caller id for your multiple DID's in your InPhonex account to be shown when dialing outbound.

You can dictate which trunk you call goes out on at the phone level by dialing a number for an outside line causing your call to be routed on a specific outbound trunk. The most common use for PBX systems is 9. If you have more than one trunk from InPhonex and you would like to dictate which trunk you dial out on from the phone you can configure each trunk to a specific number for an outside line in the Dial Patterns.

For example, Trunk 1, virtual number 1234567 is used for Company 1, and Trunk 2, virtual number 7654321 is used for Company 2. When you call outbound, you would like caller id for trunk 1 to show up representing Company 1. So, if you have a dial pattern of 9|. in your trunk settings for the virtual number matching this DID for Company 1, then when you press 9 for an outside line your call will go with this trunk.

You can then setup additional trunks with dial patterns for other numbers, 8|. and 7|. and so on for each additional outbound CID you wish to use when calling.

4.5 Configuring Inbound Routes 


Configuring inbound routes will allow calls from InPhonex go someplace in your PBX.

Using PBX

  1. Select Inbound Routes.
  2. Type a description into the Description box for your inbound route.
  3. Leave the DID number and Caller ID Number boxes empty.
  4. Under “set destination”  select extension 200.
  5. Click Submit

    Trixbox v2.6.1.1 Configuration

    Trixbox v2.6.1.1 Configuration

    From another device or softphone on your PC, call the InPhonex Virtual number or the DID associated to it. Your SIP phone extension should ring.

4.6 System Recordings

System Recording will allow you to record your own voice prompts or create one putting several built-in voice prompt files together to create the one you need.

For this example will use the “Built-in Recordings” option to create an IVR that will play “Welcome, please enter the extension number. Thank you for calling”.

Using PBX

  1. Select System Recordings
  2. Select Built-in Recordings
  3. From the drop-down menu select the firs file “welcome” and click GO
  4. Keep selecting the rest of the files as shown in the graphic below. Select save after selecting each of them.
Trixbox v2.6.1.1 Configuration

6. After saving all files your recording will be created with the name of the first file selected. In this case, “welcome.”

NOTE: If you would like to change the name of this recording you may do so in the above box CHANGE NAME. Please remember there cannot be any spaces in the name, it must be separated by either a hypen -, or an underscore _.

Example: "Main_Recording"


4.7 IVR (Digital Receptionist)

You use the Digital Receptionist to make IVR's, Interactive Voice Response systems. When creating a menu option, apart from the standard options of 0-9,* and #, you can also use 'i' and’t’ destinations. 'i' is used when the caller pushes an invalid button, and 't' is used when there is no response. If those options aren't supplied, the default ’t’, is to replay the menu three times and then hang up, and the default 'i' is to say 'Invalid option, please try again' and replay the menu. After three invalid attempts, the line is hung up

  1. Select IVR
  2. Click Add IVR from the right hand side.
  3. Under announcement select “Welcome”, or if you changed the name from the previous example choose the name you provided the message.
  4. Trixbox v2.6.1.1 Configuration

  5. Do not create any options  and click “save”.

In order to finish the basic setup of your Trixbox server let’s route all incoming calls to new system recording “welcome.”

Using the PBX menu from the top:

  1. Select Inbound Routes
  2. Click on the route we created previously that was pointing to Extension 200 (any DID / any CID)
  3. Under the “set destination” section change the option to IVR, and choose “welcome” from the drop-down menu as shown in the graphic.

    Trixbox v2.6.1.1 Configuration

  4. Click Submit.

All incoming calls will be routed to the “Unnamed" or welcome IVR allowing callers to select the desired extension.


5 Other Tasks

Up to this point we have performed a basic installation and configuration of Trixbox.
In order to optimize its performance and utilize limited bandwidth when making and receiving calls, we need to make the following configurations:

    • Install low bandwidth codecs such as G723 and G729.
    • Restrict the InPhonex trunk to use low bandwidth codecs.
    • Restrict Asterisk to use low bandwidth codecs for remote extensions.



5.1 Install low bandwidth codecs

You can find the specific codes for your type of CPU in the following link:

DISCLAIMER: You might have to pay royalty fees to the G.729/723 patent holders for using their algorithm.

To install the codec move .so file into /usr/lib/asterisk/modules directory in your Asterisk server.

It is very important that you choose the codec according to the CPU you server has. In case you choose the wrong type Asterisk will not load and give you an error message. All you have to do is remove the file and restart your server.

Here is the command to remove files in CentOS (Linux):

rm filename     (replace “filename” with the name of the codec file)

Once you determine the right file for your server, enter the following commands in your server’s prompt and press enter

Trixbox v2.6.1.1 Configuration


Assuming that I have a Pentium 4 processor, the file I need is:

I would enter the command:

NOTE:  Remember that this is just an example; be sure to replace “” with your version of the file to match your processor listed on the website under the section for Asterisk 1.4.


Assuming that I have a Pentium 4 processor, the file I need is:

I would enter the command:

NOTE:  Remember that this is just an example; be sure to replace “” with your version of the file to match your processor listed on the website under the section for Asterisk 1.4.


In order to determine if we downloaded the correct file, run the following commands:

asterisk –r  [press enter]
restart now [press enter]
asterisk –r  [press enter]
show translation [press enter]


If the file was loaded correctly, you will see the translations under G729.

Trixbox v2.6.1.1 Configuration

Trixbox v2.6.1.1 Configuration

Perform the same operation to install the G723 codec.



5.2 Restrict the InPhonex trunk to the above mentioned codecs.

Using FreePBX

  1. Click Setup
  2. Click Trunks
  3. Select “Trunk SIP/Inphonex”
  4. Add the following changes to the Peer and User details


5.3 Restrict Asterisk to use low bandwidth codecs for remote extensions.

Use a pc on your network that has a web browser and connect to your Trixbox box using HTTP://PutYourTrixboxIpaddressHere.

  1. Click on the PBX menu.
  2. Click on Config File Editor
  3. Click on sip.conf
  4. Make the following changes. NOTE: Be sure the changes are below the [general] section, the very bottom is preferred.



    bindport=5060  (UDP Port to bind to - SIP standard port is 5060)
    bindaddr= (IP address to bind to - binds to all)

  5. Click UPDATE
  6. Remember to click Re-Read Configs located at the top of the screen


6 Managing multiple DIDs

There will be times where you will need to point different DIDs to different contexts, IVRs (voice prompts), or extensions to accomplish the configuration you need. For example, you may need to provide two different numbers to your customers; one for English and one for Spanish.

You may simply want to configure one DID as the main number but provide each extension in your Trixbox its own DID that will work as its direct number. You can even configure two different companies in the same Trixbox and provide a DID for each of them.

NOTE: If the DID you want to configure is assigned to a virtual number that already has a registration string in the trunk section; you will need to add an additional VN to your account and attach that secondary DID to the new VN. You can configure up to 4 additional free virtual numbers in your account. If you need more than 5, please contact our customer service team and someone will provision your account with more free virtual numbers.

  1. Configure an additional trunk, as mentioned in Section 4.3.

  2. Once the changes have been applied, wait a few minutes and verify that the second VN was registered in your InPhonex control panel under the Registered Users section of the Virtual Numbers Tab.

  3. Configure an Inbound Route for the new trunk you just created, as mentioned in Section 4.3.

  4. Configure the inbound route based on the VN that the second DID is attached to. Remember to also set this routes destination.


7 Troubleshooting

My calls have One Way or No Audio.

  • The most common cause of one way audio/sound is when your Trixbox is behind a firewall.
  • See section 1.3 of this guide for Router/Firewall setup.

I cannot receive calls.

Check the following:

  • Make sure you configured an inbound route.
  • Make sure the virtual number configured in your Trixbox is registered in our proxy server. You can verify this from your control panel under the tab Virtual Numbers.
  • Check that all necessary ports are opened or forwarded in your firewall.
  • If you're restricting your trunk to use only g729 or g723; make sure they are installed properly.


I can receive calls but I cannot make any.

  • Make sure an outbound route is configured to use the InPhonex trunk.
  • Check if the number you are dialing belongs to the dial pattern configured in section 4.4.
  • If you're restricting your trunk to use only g729 or g723; make sure they are installed properly.


The Virtual number configured in my Trixbox does not show registered in

  • If you are using NAT make sure that nat=yes is configured in sip.conf
  • Make sure you entered the correct localnet and externip are configured.
  • Trixbox uses sip port 5060 by default; if there is any other sip device in the same network, make sure it is using a different sip port.


My calls do not have good quality.

  • Restrict your inbound and outbound trunks to use codecs g729. g723 and gsm.
  • Make sure you have enough bandwidth.
  • Determine if you have the same problem calling other InPhonex virtual numbers or if it is just when calling pstn numbers.


When I place calls my caller ID does not show correctly.

When you place IP calls the system will send Toronto, ON and override any name that appears in Account Info (Control Panel settings) for the Virtual Number.  This is sent on any call placed via a VN that is not associated with a purchased DID.

When you place PSTN calls via your 7 digit Virtual Number/Trunk that is not associated to an incoming purchased DID number, the Caller ID will display 6477233283 as the number the call was placed from or it may show 588 + your 7 digit virtual number.

When you place PSTN calls with an incoming DID number attached to it, the DID will display as the caller ID.

The system will send the display name (from account info in your control panel) as well (PSTN call via DID) but we cannot guarantee the PSTN provider will pass it down.  Again, the name sent is not  guaranteed.  We do transmit the name from the Account Info, however, not all carriers support our transmission of that data and may rely instead on 3rd parties for the name information. There are also areas where the transmission of caller id is not supported by the carrier. It is also rare for the name part of caller ID to show up on any cell phone.

Caller ID cannot be altered or blocked at the Asterisk/Trixbox level.


Caller ID cannot be manipulated in your control panel or by a calling device.

We have seen cases where Caller ID is sent as unknown, which is resolved when the soft phone is completely uninstalled and reinstalled or in the case of a hard phone, is reset to manufacturers default settings and reconfigured.

We can not guarantee Caller ID. If the callees phone number Provider looks to associate the DID with a Name, the CID will probably be displayed as Unknown, No Data, or just blank.


For more tips on securing your Asterisk server, please visit these links:



Notice regarding support:

In an effort to provide the best possible support, we offer the following options to Trixbox/Asterisk users:

  1. Unlimited, free use of our knowledgebase.
  2. Configuration guides that can assist most customers with the most common Trixbox/Asterisk configurations.
These are the only support options that we provide at this time.

Our Home Phone Service includes Internet phones with free Internet calling and unlimited US and Canada plans. We offer prepaid phone service and International DID numbers using our voice over IP system and an analog telephone adaptor (ATA). The solutions are designed for home phone service, business phone service, call shops, telemarketing firms and cyber cafes. InPhonex is proud to support Internet telephony equipment (IP Phones) including Sipura 2000, Sipura 3000, Cisco 186, Linksys PAP2 and other SIP phone adaptors. We also support Asterisk PBX, Trixbox and offer turn-key VoIP Reseller business opportunities to let entrepreneurs and businesses resell voice over Internet (VoIP) under their brand name.

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